Friday, 23 June 2017

Emulation for preservation - is it for me?

I’ve previously been of the opinion that emulation isn’t really for me.

I’ve seen presentations about emulation at conferences such as iPRES and it is fair to say that much of it normally goes over my head.

This hasn’t been helped by the fact that I’ve not really had a concrete use case for it in my own work - I find it so much easier to relate and engage to a topic or technology if I can see how it might be directly useful to me.

However, for a while now I’ve been aware that emulation is what all the ‘cool kids’ in the digital preservation world seem to be talking about. From the very migration heavy thinking of the 2000’s it appears that things are now moving in a different direction.

This fact first hit my radar at the 2014 Digital Preservation Awards where the University of Freiburg won the The OPF Award for Research and Innovation award for their work on Emulation as a Service with bwFLA Functional Long Term Archiving and Access.

So I was keen to attend the DPC event Halcyon, On and On: Emulating to Preserve to keep up to speed... not only because it was hosted on the doorstep in the centre of my home town of York!

It was an interesting and enlightening day. As usual the Digital Preservation Coalition did a great job of getting all the right experts in the room (sometimes virtually) at the same time, and a range of topics and perspectives were covered.

After an introduction from Paul Wheatley we heard from the British Library about their experiences of doing emulation as part of their Flashback project. No day on emulation would be complete without a contribution from the University of Freiburg. We had a thought provoking talk via WebEx from Euan Cochrane of Yale University Library and an excellent short film created by Jason Scott from the Internet Archive. One of the highlights for me was Jim Boulton talking about Digital Archaeology - and that wasn’t just because it had ‘Archaeology’ in the title (honest!). His talk didn’t really cover emulation, it related more to that other preservation strategy that we don’t talk about much anymore - hardware preservation. However, many of the points he raised were entirely relevant to emulation - for example, how to maintain an authentic experience, how you define what the significant properties of an item actually are and what decisions you have to make as a curator of the digital past. It was great to see how engaged the public were with his exhibitions and how people interacted with it.

Some of the themes of the day and take away thoughts for me:

  • Choosing the best strategy - It is not all about which preservation strategy to use it is more about how we can use them together - as Paul Wheatley pointed out - emulation is a good partner to migration as it can help you to test a migration strategy. The British Library showed off their lab of old hardware - they use this to check whether their emulators are working OK. As digital archivists we can (and should) use all of the tools at our disposal to make sure we are doing the job well.
  • A window of emulation opportunity? - Simon Whibley from the British Library mentioned that older material tends to emulate better than the more recent material they worked with. Later on in the day Euan Cochrane talked about the ways technology is rapidly moving forward (see for example The Internet of Things). This offers up new challenges for those working in digital preservation, whatever strategy they employ. Will there be a relatively small window of opportunity for emulation (from the 1980's to the 2000's)? Beyond that point, will it all get just too complex?
  • Software is a problem - setting up the emulation environments is easy (in that some people have this solved) but if you don’t have the necessary software to install in order to read your files then you are stuck. Obviously this is a thorny problem due to licencing and IPR and not one which has been systematically solved. The British Library have been ‘accidentally’ collecting software but this area continues to be a problematic one.
  • What constitutes an 'authentic experience'? - most of the presentations mentioned this idea of the authentic experience - ultimately this is what we are trying to provide. Simon Whibley asked whether an emulation that appears in full colour is authentic if it would have been monochrome on the original hardware? Jim Boulton mentioned that some of the artists he worked with wanted the bandwidth to be throttled on their historic websites to recreate the authentic speed (or lack of it!). Some of the emulators demonstrated over the course of the day also provided the original sounds of the operating system and this is an important element in providing an authentic experience. It isn't just about serving up the data.
Thinking about how this all relates to me and my work, I am immediately struck by two use cases.

Firstly research data - we are taking great steps forward in enabling this data to be preserved and maintained for the long term but will it be re-usable? For many types of research data there is no clear migration strategy. Emulation as a strategy for accessing this data ten or twenty years from now needs to be seriously considered. In the meantime we need to ensure we can identify the files themselves and collect adequate documentation - it is these things that will help us to enable reuse through emulators in the future.

Secondly, there are some digital archives that we hold at the Borthwick Institute from the 1980's. For example I have been working on a batch of WordStar files in my spare moments over the last few years. I'd love to get a contemporary emulator fired up and see if I could install WordStar and work with these files in their native setting. I've already gone a little way down the technology preservation route, getting WordStar installed on an old Windows 98 PC and viewing the files, but this isn't exactly contemporary. These approaches will help to establish the significant properties of the files and assess how successful subsequent migration strategies are....but this is a future blog post.

It was a fun event and it was clear that everybody loves a bit of nostalgia. Jim Boulton ended his presentation saying "There is something quite romantic about letting people play with old hardware".

We have come a long way and this is most apparent when seeing artefacts (hardware, software, operating systems, data) from early computing. Only this week whilst taking the kids to school we got into a conversation about floppy disks (yes, I know...). I asked the kids if they knew what they looked like and they answered "Yes, it is the save icon on the computer"(see Why is the save icon still a floppy disk?)...but of course they've never seen a real one. Clearly some obsolete elements of our computer history will remain in our collective consciousness for many years and perhaps it is our job to continue to keep them alive in some form.

Friday, 16 June 2017

A typical week as a digital archivist?

Sometimes (admittedly not very often) I'm asked what I actually do all day. So at the end of a busy week being a digital archivist I've decided to blog about what I've been up to.


Today I had a couple of meetings. One specifically to talk about digital preservation of electronic theses submissions. I've also had a work experience placement in this week so have set up a metadata creation task which he has been busy working on.

When I had a spare moment I did a little more testing work on the EAD harvesting feature the University of York is jointly sponsoring Artefactual Systems to develop in AtoM. Testing this feature from my perspective involves logging into the test site that Artefactual has created for us and tweaking some of the archival descriptions. Once those descriptions are saved, I can take a peek at the job scheduler and make sure that new EAD files are being created behind the scenes for the Archives Hub to attempt to harvest at a later date.

This piece of development work has been going on for a few months now and communications have been technically quite complex so I'm also trying to ensure all the organisations involved are happy with what has been achieved and will be arranging a virtual meeting so we can all get together and talk through any remaining issues.

I was slightly surprised today to have a couple of requests to talk to the media. This has sprung from the news that the Queen's Speech will be delayed. One of the reasons for the delay relates to the fact that the speech has to be written on goat's skin parchment, which takes a few days to dry. I had previously been interviewed for a article entitled Why is the UK still printing its laws on vellum? and am now mistaken for someone who knows about vellum. I explained to potential interviewers that this is not my specialist subject!


In the morning I went to visit a researcher at the University of York. I wanted to talk to him about how he uses Google Drive in relation to his research. This is a really interesting topic to me right now as I consider how best we might be able to preserve current research datasets. Seeing how exactly Google Drive is used and what features the researcher considers to be significant (and necessary for reuse) is really helpful when thinking about a suitable approach to this problem. I sometimes think I work a little bit too much in my own echo chamber, so getting out and hearing different perspectives is incredibly valuable.

Later that afternoon I had an unexpected meeting with one of our depositors (well, there were two of them actually). I've not met them before but have been working with their data for a little while. In our brief meeting it was really interesting to chat and see the data from a fresh perspective. I was able to reunite them with some digital files that they had created in the mid 1980's, had saved on to floppy disk and had not been able to access for a long time.

Digital preservation can be quite a behind the scenes sort of job - we always give a nod to the reason why we do what we do (ie: we preserve for future reuse), but actually seeing the results of that work unfold in front of your eyes is genuinely rewarding. I had rescued something from the jaws of digital obsolescence so it could now be reused and revitalised!

At the end of the day I presented a joint webinar for the Open Preservation Foundation called 'PRONOM in practice'. Alongside David Clipsham (The National Archives) and Justin Simpson (Artefactual Systems), I talked about my own experiences with PRONOM, particularly relating to file signature creation, and ending with a call to arms "Do try this at home!". It would be great if more of the community could get involved!

I was really pleased that the webinar platform worked OK for me this time round (always a bit stressful when it doesn't) and that I got to use the yellow highlighter pen on my slides.

In my spare moments (which were few and far between), I put together a powerpoint presentation for the following day...


I spent the day at the British Library in Boston Spa. I'd been invited to speak at a training event they regularly hold for members of staff who want to find out a bit more about digital preservation and the work of the team.

I was asked specifically to talk through some of the challenges and issues that I face in my work. I found this pretty easy - there are lots of challenges - and I eventually realised I had too many slides so had to cut it short! I suppose that is better than not having enough to say!

Visiting Boston Spa meant that I could also chat to the team over lunch and visit their lab. They had a very impressive range of old computers and were able to give me a demonstration of Kryoflux (which I've never seen in action before) and talk a little about emulation. This was a good warm up for the DPC event about emulation I'm attending next week: Halcyon On and On: Emulating to Preserve.

Still left on my to do list from my trip is to download Teracopy. I currently use Foldermatch for checking that files I have copied have remained unchanged. From the quick demo I saw at the British Library I think that Teracopy would be a more simple one step solution. I need to have a play with this and then think about incorporating it into the digital ingest workflow.

Sharing information and collaborating with others working in the digital preservation field really is directly beneficial to the day to day work that we do!


Back in the office today and a much quieter day.

I extracted some reports from our AtoM catalogue for a colleague and did a bit of work with our test version of Research Data York. I also met with another colleague to talk about storing and providing access to digitised images.

In the afternoon I wrote another powerpoint presentation, this time for a forthcoming DPC event: From Planning to Deployment: Digital Preservation and Organizational Change.

I'm going to be talking about our experiences of moving our Research Data York application from proof of concept to production. We are not yet in production and some of the reasons why will be explored in the presentation! Again I was asked to talk about barriers and challenges and again, this brief is fairly easy to fit! The event itself is over a week away so this is unprecedentedly well organised. Long may it continue!


On Fridays I try to catch up on the week just gone and plan for the week ahead as well as reading the relevant blogs that have appeared over the week. It is also a good chance to catch up with some admin tasks and emails.

Lunch time reading today was provided by William Kilbride's latest blog post. Some of it went over my head but the final messages around value and reuse and the need to "do more with less" rang very true.

Sometimes I even blog myself - as I am today!

Was this a typical week - perhaps not, but in this job there is probably no such thing! Every week brings new ideas, challenges and surprises!

I would say the only real constant is that I've always got lots of things to keep me busy.

Friday, 12 May 2017

AtoM Camp take aways

The view from the window at AtoM Camp ...not that there was
any time to gaze out of the window of course...
I’ve spent the last three days in Cambridge at AtoM Camp. This was the second ever AtoM Camp, and the first in Europe. A big thanks to St John’s College for hosting it and to Artefactual Systems for putting it on.

It really has been an interesting few days, with a packed programme and an engaged group of attendees from across Europe and beyond bringing different levels of experience with AtoM.

As a ‘camp counsellor’ I was able to take to the floor at regular intervals to share some of our experiences of implementing AtoM at the Borthwick, covering topics such as system selection, querying the MySQL database, building the community and overcoming implementation challenges.

However, I was also there to learn!

Here are some bits and pieces that I’ve taken away.

My first real take away is that I now have a working copy of the soon to be released AtoM 2.4 on my Macbook - this is really quite cool. I'll never again be bored on a train - I can just fire up Ubuntu and have a play!

Walk to Camp takes you over Cambridge's Bridge of Sighs
During the camp it was great to be able to hear about some of the new features that will be available in this latest release.

At the Borthwick Institute our catalogue is still running on AtoM 2.2 so we are pretty excited about moving to 2.4 and being able to take advantage of all of this new functionality.

Just some of the new features I learnt about that I can see an immediate use case are:

  • Being able to generate slugs (the end bit of the URL to a record in AtoM) from archival reference numbers rather than titles - this makes perfect sense to me and would make for neater links
  • A modification of the re-indexing script which allows you to specify which elements you want to re-index. I like this one as it means I will not need to get out of bed so early to carry out re-indexes if for example it is only the (non-public facing) accessions records that need indexing.
  • Some really helpful changes to the search results - The default operator in an AtoM search has now been changed from ‘OR’ to ‘AND’. This is a change we already made to our local instance (as have several others) but it is good to see that AtoM now has this built in. Another change focuses on weighting of results and ensures that the most relevant results appear first. This relevance ranking is related to the fields in which the search terms appear - thus, a hit in the title field would appear higher than a hit in scope and content.
  • Importing data through the interface will be carried out through the job scheduler so will be better and won't time out. This is great news as it will give colleagues the ability to do all imports themselves rather than having to wait until someone can do this through the command line

On day two of camp I enjoyed the implementation tours, seeing how other institutions have implemented AtoM and the tweaks and modifications they have made. For example it was interesting to see the shopping cart feature developed for the Mennonite Archival Image Database and most popular image carousel feature on front page of the Chinese Canadian Artifacts Project. I was also interested in some of the modifications the National Library of Wales have made to meet their own needs.

It was also nice to hear the Borthwick Catalogue described  by Dan as “elegant”!

There was a great session on community and governance at the end of day two which was one of the highlights of the camp for me. It gave attendees the chance to really understand the business model of Artefactual (as well as alternatives to the bounty model in use by other open source projects). We also got a full history of the evolution of AtoM and saw the very first project logo and vision.

The AtoM vision hasn't changed too much but the name and logo have!

Dan Gillean from Artefactual articulated the problem of trying to get funding for essential and ongoing tasks, such as code modernisation. Two examples he used were updating AtoM to work with the latest version of Symfony and Elasticsearch - both of these tasks need to happen in order to keep AtoM moving in the right direction but both require a substantial amount of work and are not likely to be picked up and funded by the community.

I was interested to see Artefactual’s vision for a new AtoM 3.0 which would see some fundamental changes to the way AtoM works and a more up-to-date, modular and scalable architecture designed to meet the future use cases of the growing AtoM community.

Artefactual's proposed modular architecture for AtoM 3.0

There is no time line for AtoM 3.0, and whether it goes ahead or not is entirely dependent on a substantial source of funding being available. It was great to see Artefactual sharing their vision and encouraging feedback from the community at this early stage though.

Another highlight of Camp:
a tour of the archives of St John's College from Tracy Deakin
A session on data migrations on day three included a demo of OpenRefine from Sara Allain from Artefactual. I’d heard of this tool before but wasn’t entirely sure what it did and whether it would be of use to me. Sara demonstrated how it could be used to bash data into shape before import into AtoM. It seemed to be capable of doing all the things that I’ve previously done in Excel (and more) ...but without so much pain. I’ll definitely be looking to try this out when I next have some data to clean up.

Dan Gillean and Pete Vox from IMAGIZ talked through the process of importing data into AtoM. Pete focused on an example from Croydon Museum Service who's data needed to be migrated from CALM. He talked through some of the challenges of the task and how he would approach this differently in future. It is clear that the complexities of data migration may be one of the biggest barriers to institutions moving to AtoM from an alternative system, but it was encouraging to hear that none of these challenges are insurmountable.

My final take away from AtoM Camp is a long list of actions - new things I have learnt that I want to read up on or try out for myself ...I best crack on!

Friday, 28 April 2017

How can we preserve Google Documents?

Last month I asked (and tried to answer) the question How can we preserve our wiki pages?

This month I am investigating the slightly more challenging issue of how to preserve native Google Drive files, specifically documents*.


At the University of York we work a lot with Google Drive. We have the G Suite for Education (formally known as Google Apps for Education) and as part of this we have embraced Google Drive and it is now widely used across the University. For many (me included) it has become the tool of choice for creating documents, spreadsheets and presentations. The ability to share documents and directly collaborate are key.

So of course it is inevitable that at some point we will need to think about how to preserve them.

How hard can it be?

Quite hard actually.

The basic problem is that documents created in Google Drive are not really "files" at all.

The majority of the techniques and models that we use in digital preservation are based around the fact that you have a digital object that you can see in your file system, copy from place to place and package up into an Archival Information Package (AIP).

In the digital preservation community we're all pretty comfortable with that way of working.

The key challenge with stuff created in Google Drive is that it doesn't really exist as a file.

Always living in hope that someone has already solved the problem, I asked the question on Twitter and that really helped with my research.

Isn't the digital preservation community great?

Exporting Documents from Google Drive

I started off testing the different download options available within Google docs. For my tests I used 2 native Google documents. One was the working version of our Phase 1 Filling the Digital Preservation Gap report. This report was originally authored as a Google doc, was 56 pages long and consisted of text, tables, images, footnotes, links, formatted text, page numbers, colours etc (ie: lots of significant properties I could assess). I also used another more simple document for testing - this one was just basic text and tables but also included comments by several contributors.

I exported both of these documents into all of the different export formats that Google supports and assessed the results, looking at each characteristic of the document in turn and establishing whether or not I felt it was adequately retained.

Here is a summary of my findings, looking specifically at the Filling the Digital Preservation Gap phase 1 report document:

  • docx - This was a pretty good copy of the original. It retained all of the key features of the report that I was looking for (images, tables, footnotes, links, colours, formatting etc), however, the 56 page report was now only 55 pages (in the original, page 48 was blank, but in the docx version this blank page wasn't there).
  • odt - Again, this was a good copy of the originals and much like the docx version in terms of the features it retained. However, the 56 page report was now only 54 pages long. Again it omitted page 48 which was blank in the Google version, but also slightly more words were squeezed on to each page which meant that it comprised of fewer pages. Initially I thought the quality of the images was degraded slightly but this turned out to be just the way they appeared to render in LibreOffice. Looking inside the actual odt file structure and viewing the images as files demonstrated to me that they were actually OK. 
  • rtf - First of all it is worth saying that the Rich Text Format file was *massive*. The key features of the document were retained, although the report document was now 60 pages long instead of 56!
  • txt - Not surprisingly this produces a tiny file that retains only the text of the original document. Obviously the original images, tables, colours, formatting etc were all lost. About the only other notable feature that was retained were the footnotes and these appeared together right at the end of the document. Also a txt file does not have a number of 'pages'... not until you print it at least.
  • pdf - This was a good copy of the original report and retained all the formatting and features that I was looking for. This was also the only copy of the report that had the right number of pages. However, it seems that this is not something we can rely on. A close comparison of the pages of the pdf compared with the original shows that there are some differences regarding which words fall on to which page - it isn't exact!
  • epub - Many features of the report were retained but like the text file it was not paginated and the footnotes were all at the end of the document. The formatting was partially retained - the images were there, but were not always placed in the same positions as in the original. For example on the title page, the logos were not aligned correctly. Similarly, the title on the front page was not central.
  • html - This was very similar to the epub file regarding what was and wasn't retained. It included footnotes at the end and had the same issues with inconsistent formatting.

...but what about the comments?

My second test document was chosen so I could look specifically at the comments feature and how these were retained (or not) in the exported version.

  • docx - Comments are exported. On first inspection they appear to be anonymised, however this seems to be just how they are rendered in Microsoft Word. Having unzipped and dug into the actual docx file and looked at the XML file that holds the comments, it is clear that a more detailed level of information is retained - see images below. The placement of the comments is not always accurate. In one instance the reply to a comment is assigned to text within a subsequent row of the table rather than to the same row as the original comment.
  • odt -  Comments are included, are attributed to individuals and have a date and time. Again, matching up of comments with right section of text is not always accurate - in one instance a comment and it's reply are linked to the table cell underneath the one that they referenced in the original document.
  • rtf - Comments are included but appear to be anonymised when displayed in MS Word...I haven't dug around enough to establish whether or not this is just a rendering issue.
  • txt - Comments are retained but appear at the end of the document with a [a], [b] etc prefix - these letters appear in the main body text to show where the comments appeared. No information about who made the comment is preserved.
  • pdf - Comments not exported
  • epub - Comments not exported
  • html - Comments are present but appear at the end of the document with a code which also acts as a placeholder in the text where the comment appeared. References to the comments in the text are hyperlinks which take you to the right comment at the bottom of the document. There is no indication of who made the comment (not even hidden within the html tags).

A comment in original Google doc

The same comment in docx as rendered by MS Word

...but in the XML buried deep within the docx file structure - we do have attribution and date/time
(though clearly in a different time zone)

What about bulk export options?

Ed Pinsent pointed me to the Google Takeout Service which allows you to:
"Create an archive with your data from Google products"
[Google's words not mine - and perhaps this is a good time to point you to Ed's blog post on the meaning of the term 'Archive']

This is really useful. It allows you to download Google Drive files in bulk and to select which formats you want to export them as.

I tested this a couple of times and was surprised to discover that if you select pdf or docx (and perhaps other formats that I didn't test) as your export format of choice, the takeout service creates the file in the format requested and an html file which includes all comments within the document (even those that have been resolved). The content of the comments/responses including dates and times is all included within the html file, as are names of individuals.

The downside of the Google Takeout Service is that it only allows you to select folders and not individual files. There is another incentive for us to organise our files better! The other issue is that it will only export documents that you are the owner of - and you may not own everything that you want to archive!

What's missing?

Quite a lot actually.

The owner, creation and last modified dates of a document in Google Drive are visible when you click on Document details... within the File menu. Obviously this is really useful information for the archive but is lost as soon as you download it into one of the available export formats.

Creation and last modified dates as visible in Document details

Update: I was pleased to see that if using the Google Takeout Service to bulk export files from Drive, the last modified dates are retained, however on single file export/download these dates are lost and the last modified date of the file becomes the date that you carried out the export. 

Part of the revision history of my Google doc
But of course in a Google document there is more metadata. Similar to the 'Page History' that I mentioned when talking about preserving wiki pages, a Google document has a 'Revision history'

Again, this *could* be useful to the archive. Perhaps not so much so for my document which I worked on by myself in March, but I could see more of a use case for mapping and recording the creative process of writing a novel for example. 

Having this revision history would also allow you to do some pretty cool stuff such as that described in this blog post: How I reverse engineered Google Docs to play back any documents Keystrokes (thanks to Nick Krabbenhoft for the link).

It would seem that the only obvious way to retain this information would be to keep the documents in their original native Google format within Google Drive but how much confidence do we have that it will be safe there for the long term?


If you want to preserve a Google Drive document there are several options but no one-size-fits-all solution.

As always it boils down to what the significant properties of the document are. What is it we are actually trying to preserve?

  • If we want a fairly accurate but non interactive digital 'print' of the document, pdf might be the most accurate representation though even the pdf export can't be relied on to retain the exact pagination. Note that I didn't try and validate the pdf files that I exported and sadly there is no pdf/a export option.
  • If comments are seen to be a key feature of the document then docx or odt will be a good option but again this is not perfect. With the test document I used, comments were not always linked to the correct point within the document.
  • If it is possible to get the owner of the files to export them, the Google Takeout Service could be used. Perhaps creating a pdf version of the static document along with a separate html file to capture the comments.

A key point to note is that all export options are imperfect so it would be important to check the exported document against the original to ensure it accurately retains the important features.

Another option would be simply keeping them in their native format but trying to get some level of control over them - taking ownership and managing sharing and edit permissions so that they can't be changed. I've been speaking to one of our Google Drive experts in IT about the logistics of this. A Google Team Drive belonging to the Archives could be used to temporarily store and lock down Google documents of archival value whilst we wait and see what happens next. 

...I live in hope that export options will improve in the future.

This is a work in progress and I'd love to find out what others think.

* note, I've also been looking at Google Sheets and that may be the subject of another blog post

Friday, 7 April 2017

Archivematica Camp York: Some thoughts from the lake

Well, that was a busy week!

Yesterday was the last day of Archivematica Camp York - an event organised by Artefactual Systems and hosted here at the University of York. The camp's intention was to provide a space for anyone interested in or currently using Archivematica to come together, learn about the platform from other users, and share their experiences. I think it succeeded in this, bringing together 30+ 'campers' from across the UK, Europe and as far afield as Brazil for three days of sessions covering different aspects of Archivematica.

Our pod on the lake (definitely a lake - not a pond!)
My main goal at camp was to ensure everyone found their way to the rooms (including the lakeside pod) and that we were suitably fuelled with coffee, popcorn and cake. Alongside these vital tasks I also managed to partake in the sessions, have a play with the new version of Archivematica (1.6) and learn a lot in the process.

I can't possibly capture everything in this brief blog post so if you want to know more, have a look back at all the #AMCampYork tweets.

What I've focused on below are some of the recurring themes that came up over the three days.


Archivematica is just one part of a bigger picture for institutions that are carrying out digital preservation, so it is always very helpful to see how others are implementing it and what systems they will be integrating with. A session on workflows in which participants were invited to talk about their own implementations was really interesting. 

Other sessions  also helped highlight the variety of different configurations and workflows that are possible using Archivematica. I hadn't quite realised there were so many different ways you could carry out a transfer! 

In a session on specialised workflows, Sara Allain talked us through the different options. One workflow I hadn't been aware of before was the ability to include checksums as part of your transfer. This sounds like something I need to take advantage of when I get Archivematica into production for the Borthwick. 

Justin talking about Automation Tools
A session on Automation Tools with Justin Simpson highlighted other possibilities - using Archivematica in a more automated fashion. 

We already have some experience of using Automation Tools at York as part of the work we carried out during phase 3 of Filling the Digital Preservation Gap, however I was struck by how many different ways these can be applied. Hearing examples from other institutions and for a variety of different use cases was really helpful.


The camp included a chance to play with Archivematica version 1.6 (which was only released a couple of weeks ago) as well as an introduction to the new Appraisal and Arrangement tab.

A session in progress at Archivematica Camp York
I'd been following this project with interest so it was great to be able to finally test out the new features (including the rather pleasing pie charts showing what file formats you have in your transfer). It was clear that there were a few improvements that could be made to the tab to make it more intuitive to use and to deal with things such as the ability to edit or delete tags, but it is certainly an interesting feature and one that I would like to explore more using some real data from our digital archive.

Throughout camp there was a fair bit of discussion around digital appraisal and at what point in your workflow this would be carried out. This was of particular interest to me being a topic I had recently raised with colleagues back at base.

The Bentley Historical Library who funded the work to create the new tab within Archivematica are clearly keen to get their digital archives into Archivematica as soon as possible and then carry out the work there after transfer. The addition of this new tab now makes this workflow possible.

Kirsty Lee from the University of Edinburgh described her own pre-ingest methodology and the tools she uses to help her appraise material before transfer to Archivematica. She talked about some tools (such as TreeSize Pro) that I'm really keen to follow up on.

At the moment I'm undecided about exactly where and how this appraisal work will be carried out at York, and in particular how this will work for hybrid collections so as always it is interesting to hear from others about what works for them.

Metadata and reporting

Evelyn admitting she loves PREMIS and METS
Evelyn McLellan from Artefactual led a 'Metadata Deep Dive' on day 2 and despite the title, this was actually a pretty interesting session!

We got into the details of METS and PREMIS and how they are implemented within Archivematica. Although I generally try not to look too closely at METS and PREMIS it was good to have them demystified. On the first day through a series of exercises we had been encouraged to look at a METS file created by Archivematica ourselves and try and pick out some information from it so these sessions in combination were really useful.

Across various sessions of the camp there was also a running discussion around reporting. Given that Archivematica stores such a detailed range of metadata in the METS file, how do we actually make use of this? Being able to report on how many AIPs have been created, how many files and what size is useful. These are statistics that I currently collect (manually) on a quarterly basis and share with colleagues. Once Archivematica is in place at York, digging further into those rich METS files to find out which file formats are in the digital archive would be really helpful for preservation planning (among other things). There was discussion about whether reporting should be a feature of Archivematica or a job that should be done outside Archivematica.

In relation to the later option - I described in one session how some of our phase 2 work of Filling the Digital Preservation Gap was designed to help expose metadata from Archivematica to a third party reporting system. The Jisc Research Data Shared Service was also mentioned in this context as reporting outside of Archivematica will need to be addressed as part of this project.


As with most open source software, community is important. This was touched on throughout the camp and was the focus of the last session on the last day.

There was a discussion about the role of Artefactual Systems and the role of Archivematica users. Obviously we are all encouraged to engage and help sustain the project in whatever way we are able. This could be by sharing successes and failures (I was pleased that my blog got a mention here!), submitting code and bug reports, sponsoring new features (perhaps something listed on the development roadmap) or helping others by responding to queries on the mailing list. It doesn't matter - just get involved!

I was also able to highlight the UK Archivematica group and talk about what we do and what we get out of it. As well as encouraging new members to the group, there was also discussion about the potential for forming other regional groups like this in other countries.

Some of the Archivematica community - class of Archivematica Camp York 2017

...and finally

Another real success for us at York was having the opportunity to get technical staff at York working with Artefactual to resolve some problems we had with getting our first Archivematica implementation into production. Real progress was made and I'm hoping we can finally start using Archivematica for real at the end of next month.

So, that was Archivematica Camp!

A big thanks to all who came to York and to Artefactual for organising the programme. As promised, the sun shined and there were ducks on the lake - what more could you ask for?

Thanks to Paul Shields for the photos

Monday, 13 March 2017

Want to learn about Archivematica whilst watching the ducks?

We are really excited to be hosting the first European Archivematica Camp here at the University of York next month - on the 4-6th April.

Don't worry - there will be no tents or campfires...but there may be some wildlife on the lake.

The Ron Cooke Hub on a frosty morning - hoping for some warmer weather for Camp!

The event is taking place at the Ron Cooke Hub over on our Heslington East campus. If you want to visit the beautiful City of York (OK, I'm biased!) and meet other European Archivematica users (or Archivematica explorers) this event is for you. Artefactual Systems will be leading the event and the agenda is looking very full and interesting.

I'm most looking forward to learning more about the workflows that other Archivematica users have in place or are planning to implement.

One of these lakeside 'pods' will be our breakout room

There are still places left and you can register for Camp here or contact the organisers at

...and if you are not able to attend in person, do watch this blog in early April as you can guarantee I'll be blogging after the event!

Friday, 10 March 2017

How can we preserve our wiki pages

I was recently prompted by a colleague to investigate options for preserving institutional wiki pages. At the University of York we use the Confluence wiki and this is available for all staff to use for a variety of purposes. In the Archives we have our own wiki space on Confluence which we use primarily for our meeting agendas and minutes. The question asked of me was how can we best capture content on the wiki that needs to be preserved for the long term? 

Good question and just the sort of thing I like to investigate. Here are my findings...

Space export

The most sensible way to approach the transfer of a set of wiki pages to the digital archive would be to export them using the export options available within the Space Tools.

The main problem with this approach is that a user will need to have the necessary permissions on the wiki space in order to be able to use these tools ...I found that I only had the necessary permissions on those wiki spaces that I administer myself.

There are three export options as illustrated below:

Space export options - available if you have the right permissions!


Once you select HTML, there are two options - a standard export (which exports the whole space) or a custom export (which allows you to select the pages you would like included within the export).

I went for a custom export and selected just one section of meeting papers. Each wiki page is saved as an HTML file. DROID identifies these as HTML version 5. All relevant attachments are included in the download in their original format.

There are some really good things about this export option:
  • The inclusion of attachments in the export - these are often going to be as valuable to us as the wiki page content itself. Note that they were all renamed with a number that tied them to the page that they were associated with. It seemed that the original file name was however preserved in the linking wiki page text 
  • The metadata at the top of a wiki page is present in the HTML pages: ie Created by Jenny Mitcham, last modified by Jenny Mitcham on 31, Oct, 2016 - this is really important to us from an archival point of view
  • The links work - including links to the downloaded attachments, other wiki pages and external websites or Google Docs
  • The export includes an index page which can act as a table of contents for the exported files - this also includes some basic metadata about the wiki space


Again, there are two options here - either a standard export (of the whole space) or a custom export, which allows you to select whether or not you want comments to be exported and choose exactly which pages you want to export.

I tried the custom export. It seemed to work and also did export all the relevant attachments. The attachments were all renamed as '1' (with no file extension), and the wiki page content is all bundled up into one huge XML file.

On the plus side, this export option may contain more metadata than the other options (for example the page history) but it is difficult to tell as the XML file is so big and unwieldy and hard to interpret. Really it isn't designed to be usable. The main function of this export option is to move wiki pages into another instance of Confluence.


Again you have the option to export whole space or choose your pages. There are also other configurations you can make to the output but these are mostly cosmetic.

I chose the same batch of meeting papers to export as PDF and this produces a 111 page PDF document. The first page is a contents page which lists all the other pages alphabetically with hyperlinks to the right section of the document. It is hard to use the document as the wiki pages seem to run into each other without adequate spacing and because of the linear nature of a pdf document you feel drawn to read it in the order it is presented (which in this case is not a logical order for the content). Attachments are not included in the download though links to the attachments are maintained in the PDF file and they do continue to resolve to the right place on the wiki. Creation and last modified metadata is also not included in the export.

Single page export

As well as the Space Export options in Confluence there are also single page export options. These are available to anyone who can access the wiki page so may be useful if people do not have necessary permissions for a space export.

I exported a range of test pages using the 'Export to PDF' and 'Export to Word' options.

Export to PDF

The PDF files created in this manner are version 1.4. Sadly no option to export as PDF/A, but at least version 1.4 is closer to the PDF/A standard than some, so perhaps a subsequent migration to PDF/A would be successful.

Export to Word

Surprisingly the 'Word' files produced by Confluence appear not to be Word files at all!

Double click on the files in Windows Explorer and they open in Microsoft Word no problem, but DROID identifies the files as HTML (with no version number) and reports a file extension mismatch (because the files have a .doc extension).

If you view the files in a text application you can clearly see the Content-Type marked as text/html and <html> tags within the document. Quick View Plus, however views them as an Internet Mail Message with the following text displayed at the top of each page:

Subject: Exported From Confluence
1024x640 72 Print 90

All very confusing and certainly not giving me a lot of faith in this particular export format!


Both of these single page export formats do a reasonable job of retaining the basic content of the wiki pages - both versions include many of the key features I was looking for - text, images, tables, bullet points, colours. 

Where advanced formatting has been used to lay out a page using coloured boxes, the PDF version does a better job at replicating this than the 'Word' version. Whilst the PDF attempts to retain the original formatting, the 'Word' version displays the information in a much more linear fashion.

Links were also more usefully replicated in the PDF version. The absolute URL of all links, whether internal, external or to attachments was included within the PDF file so that it is possible to follow them to their original location (if you have the necessary permissions to view the pages). On the 'Word' versions, only external links worked in this way. Internal wiki links and links to attachments were exported as a relative link which become 'broken' once that page is taken out of its original context. 

The naming of the files that were produced is also worthy of comment. The 'Word' versions are given a name which mirrors the name of the page within the wiki space, but the naming of the PDF versions are much more useful, including the name of the wiki space itself, the page name and a date and timestamp showing when the page was exported.

Neither of these single page export formats retained the creation and last modified metadata for each page and this is something that it would be very helpful to retain.


So, if we want to preserve pages from our institutional wiki, what is the best approach?

The Space Export in HTML format is a clear winner. It reproduces the wiki pages in a reusable form that replicates the page content well. As HTML is essentially just ASCII text it is also a good format for long term preservation.

What impressed me about the HTML export was the fact that it retained the content, included basic creation and last modified metadata for each page and downloaded all relevant attachments, updating the links to point to these local copies.

What if someone does not have the necessary permissions to do a space export? My first suggestion would be that they ask for their permissions to be upgraded. If not, perhaps someone who does have necessary permissions could carry out the export?

If all else fails, the export of a single page using the 'Export as PDF' option could be used to provide ad hoc content for the digital archive. PDF is not the best preservation format but may be able to be converted to PDF/A. Note that any attachments would have to be exported separately and manually is this option was selected.

Final thoughts

A wiki space is a dynamic thing which can involve several different types of content - blog posts, labels/tags and comments can all be added to wiki spaces and pages. If these elements are thought to be significant then more work is required to see how they can be captured. It was apparent that comments could be captured using the HTML and XML exports and I believe blog posts can be captured individually as PDF files.

What is also available within the wiki platform itself is a very detailed Page History. Within each wiki page it is possible to view the Page History and see how a page has evolved over time - who has edited it and when those edits occurred. As far as I could see, none of the export formats included this level of information. The only exception may be the XML export but this was so difficult to view that I could not be sure either way.

So, there are limitations to all these approaches and as ever this goes back to the age old discussion about Significant Properties. What is significant about the wiki pages? What is it that we are trying to preserve? None of the export options preserve everything. All are compromises, but perhaps some are compromises we could live with.